Forest in India : Visit best forests of India, haven to some rare & endangered species in India. Explore several types of Indian forests during wildlife India tour

"Wild India"

Tamil Nadu Tour package

Bird Watching Tour

Duration: 05 Nights - 06 Days

Jeep Safari Tour

Duration: 04 Nights - 05 Days

Wildlife Tour Package

Duration: 07 Nights - 08 Days

National Park Vacation

Duration: 08 Nights - 09 Days

Indian Elephant Safari Tour

Duration: 03 Nights - 04 Days

Wildlife Sanctuaries Tour

Duration: 22 Nights - 23 Days

National Parks in India
Bandhavgarh National Park
Himalayan National Park
Sundarbans National Park

Wildlife Sanctuaries
Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary
Thattekad Bird Sanctuary
Gir Wildlife Sanctuary

Wildlife Resorts
Resorts In Kanha
Resorts In Corbett
Resorts In Panna
Wildlife by Season
Fall / Autumn
Meet the Animals
Bengal Tiger
Indian Rhino
Indian Elephant

Safari in Jungle
Tiger Safari
Elephant Safari
Photographic Safari

Wildlife Tour Packages
Indian Wild Tour
National Park Vacation
Ranthambore Tiger Tour
Wildlife Communities
Wildlife Institute of India
Project Tiger
Wild Protection Society

Wildlife Conservation
Conservation Programs
Eco Tourism
Bird Watching

India Wildlife Maps
Map of National Parks
Map of Wild Sanctuaries
Map of Indian Animals
   Wild India » Habitats » Rivers
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Indian ForestThe Indian Forests
The forest of India are ancient in nature and composition. Each Indian forest are rich in variety and shelter a wide range of fauna, avi-fauna and insects. The fact that they have existed for very long time is proved from the ancient texts all of which have some mention of the forests. The people revered forests in India and a large number of religious ceremonies centred on trees and plants. Even today in parts of India the sacred groves exist and are worshipped.

India possesses a distinct identity, not only because of its geography, history and culture but also because of the great diversity of its natural ecosystems. The panorama of Indian forest ranges from evergreen tropical rain forests in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Western Ghats, and the north-eastern states, to dry alpine scrub high in the Himalaya to the north. Between the two extremes, the country has semi-evergreen rain forests, deciduous monsoon forests, thorn forests, subtropical pine forests in the lower montane zone and temperate montane forests (Lal, 1989).
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Report on Forest of India
As per the latest state of forests report of the Forest Survey of India the actual forest cover of India is 19.27% of the geographic area, corresponding to 63.3 million ha. Only 38 million ha of forests in India are well stocked (crown density above 40%). This resource has to meet the demand of a population of 950 million people and around 450 million cattle. As such, country has to meet the needs of 16% of the world's population from 1% of the world forest resources. The same forest of India has also to cater for the 19% of the world cattle population.

The History of Indian Forest Reserves
In Mumbai (Bombay), the conservator of forest, Gibson, tried to introduce rules prohibiting shifting cultivation and plantation of teak forests. From 1865 to 1894, forest reserves were established to secure material for imperial needs. From the 18th century, scientific forest management systems were employed to regenerate and harvest the forest to make it sustainable. Between 1926 and 1947 afforestation was carried out on a large scale in the Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. In the early 1930s, people began showing interest in the conservation of wild life.

Around the same time the Indian rulers of the States also started conservation of habitats to help conserve the birds and mammals in forest of India. Though all of them were hunters and between them and the British they cleaned at least 5000 tigers from the forests of India. But still these areas of conservation helped save the species from extinction and formed most of the modern National Parks in India. Indian Forest

The new Forest Policy of 1952 recognised the protective functions of the forest of India and aimed at maintaining one-third of India's land area under forest. Certain activities were banned and grazing restricted to protect forest of India. Much of the original British policy was kept in place, such as the classification of forest land into two broad types.

The next 50 years saw development and change in people's thinking regarding the forest. A constructive attitude was brought about through a number of five-year plans. Until 1976, the forest resource was seen as a source of earning money for the state and therefore little was spent in protecting Indian forests or looking after it.

Types of Forests in India
In it 16 major forests types are recognised, subdivided into 221 minor types. Structure, physiognomy and floristics are all used as characters to define the types of Indian forest.
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The main areas of tropical forest of India are found in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; the Western Ghats, which fringe the Arabian Sea coastline of peninsular India; and the greater Assam region in the north-east. Small remnants of rain forest of India are found in Orissa state. Semi-evergreen rain forest is more extensive than the evergreen formation partly because evergreen forests tend to degrade to semi-evergreen with human interference. There are substantial differences in both the flora and fauna between the three major rain forest regions (IUCN, 1986; Rodges and Panwar, 1988).

The Western Ghats Monsoon forests in India occur both on the western (coastal) margins of the ghats and on the eastern side where there is less rainfall. Forests in India contain several tree species of great commercial significance (e.g. Indian rosewood Dalbergia latifolia, Malabar Kino Pterocarpus marsupium, teak and Terminalia crenulata), but they have now been cleared from many areas. In the rain forest of India there is an enormous number of tree species. At least 60 percent of the trees of the upper canopy are of species which individually contribute not more than one percent of the total number. Clumps of bamboo occur along streams or in poorly drained hollows throughout the evergreen and semi-evergreen forests of south-west India, probably in areas once cleared for shifting agriculture. Indian Forest

The tropical vegetation of north-east India (which includes the states of Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya as well as the plain regions of Arunachal Pradesh) typically occurs at elevations up to 900 m. It embraces evergreen and semi-evergreen rain forests, moist deciduous monsoon forests, riparian forests, swamps and grasslands. Evergreen rain forests in India are found in the Assam Valley, the foothills of the eastern Himalayas and the lower parts of the Naga Hills, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Manipur where the rain fall exceeds 2300 mm per annum. In the Assam Valley the giant Dipterocarpus macrocarpus and Shorea assamica occur singly, occasionally attaining a girth of up to 7 m and a height of up to 50 m. The monsoon forests in India are mainly moist sal Shorea robusta forests, which occur widely in this region (IUCN, 1991).

The Andamans and Nicobar islands have tropical evergreen rain forests and tropical semi-evergreen rainforests as well as tropical monsoon moist monsoon forests (IUCN, 1986). The dominant species these Indian forest is Dipterocarpus grandiflorus in hilly areas, while Dipterocarpus kerrii is dominant on some islands in the southern parts of the archipelago. The monsoon forests of the Andamans are dominated by Pterocarpus dalbergioides and Terminalia spp.
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